Industrial process plants are complex facilities with thousands of components that play a role in the operation of the plant. Not all these components hold the same consequences if they are improperly selected or if they fail to perform their designed function.
Recently an article was published that presented an easily constructed Excel sheet that estimates hydrodynamic noise in control valves1. A number of people have asked me if there is something similar for aerodynamic noise.
A veteran of valve sizing with more than 40 years of experience provides his perspective on how to calculate the compressibility factor of a real gas for control valve sizing purposes.
Most control valve manufacturers include IEC 60534-8-4:2015 in their control valve sizing and selection software to predict control valve hydrodynamic noise. However, users who want to make quick noise predictions or who want to construct valve sizing applications, programming the above noise standard can be a daunting task.
If one wants to be able to do accurate hand calculations, or construct a simple program or Excel sheet, the method described here gives answers that agree exactly with iterative calculations using the equations in the current version of the ISA and IEC standards.
EIVs are a critical safety device for fuel-burning equipment and industrial processes that use flammable ingredients. Proper selection is critical for the safety of the workers in the plant, plant equipment and the surrounding communities.
The availability of an easily constructed Excel worksheet that calculates and graphs control valve installed gain in conjunction with the user’s preferred control valve sizing application has prompted a new interest in the application of these calculations. Three examples are shown here.
Positioner selection deserves due diligence — and consideration of several factors before making any firm decision. There’s certainly not a typical one-size-fits-all approach for positioners; an uninformed choice can lead to undesirable consequences.
Appropriately specifying trip valves in the world of natural gas liquification is a critical element. Failing to do so effectively can risk the lives of operators and maintenance personnel working in close proximity to the equipment, and can sometimes cause irreparable damage to expensive turbomachinery.
By taking advantage of Valin’s program, customers can be confident that their inventory management function is fully optimized. They can rest assured that the right parts will be in the right place right when they need them, while keeping the peace of mind that their transactional costs are being lowered and the KPI’s are being adequately analyzed.
Application requirements are paramount, but don't overspend when a less expensive option will do.
A simple process method based on the principle that piping pressure losses are approximately proportional to flow squared is presented.
While globe control valves are still a viable solution, modern rotary control valves offer many advantages and serve as a more suitable solution in certain process applications.
Most people who are familiar with control valves have seen the formula for calculating the valve capacity (Cv) required to pass a given flow rate of water. This seems fairly straightforward until you ask yourself, what is the correct value of differential pressure to use?
Maintaining a consistent internal environment for your enclosures is critical for equipment to function properly. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has defined standards for specific enclosures designed for the application and environment when correctly installed. Learn more.
A lot must be reviewed prior to selecting the right fitting for power plant instrumentation applications. Among the choices are whether to use single- or double-ferrule designs; heat codes, lubrication, and corrosion resistance must also be considered.
The devastating effects cavitation can have on control valve internals is widely appreciated. In this article, the authors therefore explain the origins of cavitation, provide an easyto-use method to estimate cavitation sound levels and conclude with approaches to reduce or even avoid cavitation.
In the world of instrumentation, there are a number of different topics discussed and analyzed. However, one that should not be overlooked is that of instrumentation fittings. Do you know what technologies are available? Do you know the strengths and /weaknesses? Are there any new trends?
Specifying control valves and engineering a system in which the flow of a particular product is completely optimized for superior performance and yield can be a challenging process. A number of factors must be considered during this practice to avoid process-destroying problems. Learn more.
Many engineers may wonder if it is possible to have flashing liquid flow in a control valve even if flow is not choked. The short answer is yes, but it is not very common. This article provides a more detailed answer to this question.
Within a refinery, four main utilities are considered essential to operations: electricity, natural gas, water and compressed air.
I was recently asked how the installed flow characteristic of an equal percentage valve in a system that includes a significant amount of pipe or other pressure-consuming elements “magically” becomes a linear, or approximately linear, installed flow characteristic.
In the past, bulk storage systems have been used to house nitrogen on-site at the manufacturing plants, but this method of storage can result in a significant loss in revenue. So, what is the solution for plant owners? The answer begins with in-house nitrogen generation systems. Learn more.
The iPolymer PTFE Pressure Regulator is designed for use with high purity water systems and aggressive chemical applications to regulate and maintain a constant pressure downstream of the valve and prevent over-pressurization of sensitive equipment.
Liquid choked flow in control valves results in either flashing, or more often, cavitation.
Valve sizing and proper application of control valves have always gone hand-in-hand. However, the tools available to valve users have changed and improved significantly over time.
Despite the demand for standardized communication protocols among manufacturers, both the manufacturers and end users face challenges when it comes to agreeing on a path.
When selecting the pipes and valves for a cooling system, it is important to understand the options available—and the possible outcomes associated with each selection. Many factors can impact the effectiveness, longevity and quality of the overall cooling system. Learn more.
Spectroscopy-based measurement on manufacturing lines yields greater process control
Oil and gas engineers face a problem in accurately and reliably measuring and monitoring the various fluids that are introduced into oil pipelines from well site pumping stations. A thorough understanding of both the oil separation process and the properties of valves and actuators is required.
United Electric Controls has introduced a unique new family of HART capable transmitters that provides programmable switching functionality for industrial process monitoring applications. The One Series 1XTXSW transmitter line is the first to integrate HART 7 compatible 4-20 mA output. Lean more.
Precise combinations of valves and other equipment lead to process success. A biopolymer fermentation process provides an example of proper valve selection.
This is Part IV in a four-part series based on the contents of the new textbook, “Control Valve Application Technology, Techniques and Considerations for Properly Selecting the Right Control Valve.”
In order to get good control with stability throughout the full range of required flow rates, one must use a control valve that has an installed flow characteristic that is linear, or at least as close to linear as possible in most systems.
In a world where most information is available in an instant, plant managers and engineers are continuously trying to find ways to improve the efficiency of processes along the manufacturing line.
When addressing the needs of measurement operations involving various densities and amounts of liquid, Coriolis mass flowmeters are often chosen for their accuracy, durability and reduced maintenance costs. Applications involving custody transfer benefit from their simple and dependable characteristics.
Purchase Valin’s Control Valve Application Technology book today to learn how to apply the right techniques to selecting the correct control valves.
This is Part II in a four-part series based on the contents of the new textbook, “Control Valve Application Technology, Techniques and Considerations for Properly Selecting the Right Control Valve.”
This article discusses the importance of selecting the correct flow characteristic and correctly sizing the valve in order for the valve to properly control the process.
It’s important to understand the importance of proper control valve sizing. If the valve is too small, it won’t be able to pass the required flow. In actual practice, undersized valves are fairly uncommon, but oversized valves are all too common.
The Reveal™ optical spectroscopy-based measurement system will help customers increase quality, yield, and productivity while reducing both risk and downtime in the manufacturing environment. Its measurement capabilities are unmatched by legacy techniques.
Loss of containment is one of the costliest things that can go wrong at a plant. Accordingly, smart enterprises employ a variety of measures that ensure loss of containment just doesn’t happen – or when it does, the adverse circumstances are kept to a minimum.
The noise abatement laws and health and safety legislation are becoming increasingly strict. Metso introduces Q2- Trim, the optimum solution for noise problems, that at the same time fulfills all legislative requirements and customer needs.
Emergency order required all rail shippers to test products from the Bakken to ensure proper classifications of the oil within federal regulations before it's transported. The intent was to ensure shippers properly classified crude oil for transportation and to quantify the range of physical and chemical properties.
The accurate allocation measurement of oil, water and gas is a constant priority for managers of surface operations, particularly with the recent oil boom in parts of the U.S. These measurements are the basis of the financial transaction between oil companies and royalty owners.
Jon F. Monsen, Ph.D., P.E., a control valve technology specialist for Valin Corporation, has written a book detailing the many facets of control valves. The book, Control Valve Application Technology, Techniques and considerations for properly selecting the right control valve. Learn more.
The recent oil boom in the United States, driven by rapidly advancing extraction technologies, presents new and critical challenges to operators in the measurement of oil, water and gas produced in surface operations.
Valin is in the final stages of successfully commissioning 65 Lease Automatic Custody Transfer systems (LACT) for a very large project with one of the largest independent midstream energy companies in North America. The LACT systems were needed for an oil gathering project in the Myrmidon field in the Bakken Shale play in North Dakota.
Certain frequencies of sound can play havoc on industrial equipment. When control valves are not selected appropriately, there is an increased risk for cavitation, which causes high noise and vibration levels, resulting in very rapid damage to the valve's internals and/or the downstream piping.
In a recent interview with VALVE Magazine, Dr. Monsen discussed how the analysis of installed gain can be a guideline for selecting the control valve that will provide good control with stability throughout the full range of required flow rates
When control valve professionals talk about "control valve sizing," they really mean the entire process of selecting the valve that will do the best job of controlling the process. Selecting the right size valve is an important part of the process, but there are other equally important considerations as well.
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